Ensure the healthy future
Reduced hypersensitivity to noise and odors
Improving visual coordination
Developing the ability to read and write
Speech improvement. Children greatly improve their vocabulary and speak much better.
Artigas, Josep & Paula, Isabel. (2020). From autism spectrum to autism constellation. Medicina. 80 Suppl 2. 21-25.
Research on autism and mental disorders has been unsuccessful over the past few decades, as can be inferred from the poor results related to advances in other diseases. It is concerning that, after more than a half century of research based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), no biological markers have been found to prove the validity of the DSM mental disorders. Criticisms to DSM have been focused mainly on the categorical conceptualization, false comorbidity and the polythetic nature of diagnostic criteria. The lack of validity of the DSM model requests for a change in research designs, in order to overcome the problems derived from a paradigm that has stopped to be productive. In the field of clinical practice, it is even more pressing a change of mindset in order to incorporate the heterogeneity of endophenotypes that overflows the classification of the DSM, to adopt a dimensional perspective of mental problems and to develop an alternative interpretation for comorbidity. Related to research are suggested designs based on Domain Research Criteria and a multifactorial analysis with very large samples (big data). For clinical practice it is suggested a dimensional approach based on the specificities of each person with autism.
Marotta, Rosa & Risoleo, Maria Cristina & Messina, Giovanni & Parisi, Lucia & Carotenuto, Marco & Vetri, Luigi & Roccella, Michele. (2020). The Neurochemistry of Autism. Brain Sciences. 10. 163. 10.3390/brainsci10030163.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to complex neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior or interests, and altered sensory processing. Environmental, immunological, genetic, and epigenetic factors are implicated in the pathophysiology of autism and provoke the occurrence of neuroanatomical and neurochemical events relatively early in the development of the central nervous system. Many neurochemical pathways are involved in determining ASD; however, how these complex networks interact and cause the onset of the core symptoms of autism remains unclear. Further studies on neurochemical alterations in autism are necessary to clarify the early neurodevelopmental variations behind the enormous heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder, and therefore lead to new approaches for the treatment and prevention of autism. In this review, we aim to delineate the state-of-the-art main research findings about the neurochemical alterations in autism etiology, and focuses on gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, serotonin, dopamine, N-acetyl aspartate, oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin, melatonin, vitamin D, orexin, endogenous opioids, and acetylcholine. We also aim to suggest a possible related therapeutic approach that could improve the quality of ASD interventions. Over one hundred references were collected through electronic database searching in Medline and EMBASE (Ovid), Scopus (Elsevier), ERIC (Proquest), PubMed, and the Web of Science (ISI).