Ensure the healthy future
Improved function of the musculoskeletal system
Prevention and elimination of seizures
Bowel and bladder control improvement
Cognitive function improvement
Dartnell, Jo & Lee, Eng. (2015). Stem cell therapy in cerebral palsy. Current Orthopaedic Practice. 26. 15-20. 10.1097/BCO.0000000000000188.
Recent studies on the use of stem cells in cerebral palsy were reviewed. Most studies used either mesenchymal stem cells or umbilical cord stem cells. The main routes of administration were intravenous, intrathecal, or intraparenchymal. Animal studies were based on rodent models of hypoxia-ischemia encephalopathy and induced hypoxemia. The injections of cells were done acutely a few days after the brain insult. Results of animal studies were mixed. More mechanistic studies on how the stem cells contribute to repair are required. There were very few well-designed controlled clinical studies. Outcome measures were mainly based on functional recovery with only two studies using imaging. Results were mixed, with some studies showing early functional recovery in the younger children but this was not sustained. Imaging with PET/CT in one study showed differences in the pattern between the stem cell group and control group. There is a need for well-designed controlled studies with more objective outcome measures.
Paton, Madison & Mcdonald, Courtney & Allison, Beth & Fahey, Michael & Jenkin, Graham & Miller, Suzanne. (2017). Perinatal Brain Injury As a Consequence of Preterm Birth and Intrauterine Inflammation: Designing Targeted Stem Cell Therapies. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 11. 200. 10.3389/fnins.2017.00200.
Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of preterm birth and brain injury. Bacterial invasion of the chorion and amnion, and/or the placenta, can lead to a fetal inflammatory response, which in turn has significant adverse consequences for the developing fetal brain. Accordingly, there is a strong causal link between chorioamnionitis, preterm brain injury and the pathogenesis of severe postnatal neurological deficits and cerebral palsy. Currently there are no treatments to protect or repair against brain injury in preterm infants born after pregnancy compromised by intrauterine infection. This review describes the injurious cascade of events in the preterm brain in response to a severe fetal inflammatory event. We will highlight specific periods of increased vulnerability, and the potential effects of therapeutic intervention with cell-based therapies. Many clinical trials are underway to investigate the efficacy of stem cells to treat patients with cerebral palsy. Stem cells, obtained from umbilical cord tissue and cord blood, normally discarded after birth, are emerging as a safe and potentially effective therapy. It is not yet known, however, which stem cell type(s) are the most efficacious for administration to preterm infants to treat brain injury-mediated inflammation. Individual stem cell populations found in cord blood and tissue, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), have a number of potential benefits that may specifically target preterm inflammatory-induced brain injury. MSCs have strong immunomodulatory potential, protecting against global and local neuroinflammatory cascades triggered during infection to the fetus. EPCs have angiogenic and vascular reparative qualities that make them ideal for neurovascular repair. A combined therapy using both MSCs and EPCs to target inflammation and promote angiogenesis for re-establishment of vital vessel networks is a treatment concept that warrants further investigation.