Ensure the healthy future
The weakness and fatigue disappears.
Sleep is stabilized.
The causeless bleeding from the nose and gums disappears.
The weight is stabilized.
Itchy skin disappears.
Redness of palms disappears.
Stem cell transplantation for the treatment of end-stage liver disease
The past two decades have witnessed an explosion of research and clinical application of stem cells, transforming the field of regenerative medicine. Stem cell transplantation has already been performed to treat patients with cancer, liver diseases, and various types of chronic diseases. Indeed, stem cell-based therapies are effective in many diseases, and provide novel insights into the treatment of end-stage liver disease. Several clinical trials have indicated the efficacy profiles of stem cell transplantation in patients with end-stage liver disease, including liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver tumors. Animal models of acute liver failure have also provided important insights into the safety, mechanisms, and efficacy of stem cell therapies. Nevertheless, excitement due to this promising field must be tempered with careful and calculated research. In particular, studies on the quality, safety, and efficacy of stem cell transplantation are needed to ensure that qualified products are tested in well-designed clinical trials and approved by governments. Therefore, further investigations are required to effectively balance the safety with the innovation of stem cell transplantation research toward the effective treatment of end-stage liver disease. Keywords: Stem cell transplantation, End-stage liver disease, Clinical treatment, Efficacy, Safety
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be cultured relatively easily and can be obtained not only from the bone marrow, but also from medical waste such as adipose tissue and umbilical cord tissue. Because of its low antigenicity, allogeneic MSC injection is safe. MSCs have been evaluated in more than 900 clinical trials in a variety of fields, with more than 50 clinical trials related to liver diseases. Experiments have suggested that MSCs function as “conducting cells” to affect various “effective cells” such as T cells, B cells, and macrophages. Recent clinical trials have focused on allogeneic MSCs. Thus, studies are needed to determine the most effective cell source, culture conditions, cell numbers, administration frequency, administration route, cost, safety, and liver disease treatments. Recently, the functions of exosomes have gained attention, and cell-free therapy may become possible as an alternative therapy for liver disease. In this review, we introduce general information, mechanism, representative clinical study data, recently started or planned clinical trials, and possibility of cell-free therapy of MSCs.