Viral hepatitis B, C

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    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are frequently propagating blood borne pathogens in global community. Viral hepatitis is primarily associated with severe health complications, such as liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic fibrosis and steatosis. A literature review was conducted on hepatitis B virus (HBV), HBV genome, genotypic distribution and global epidemiology of HBV, HCV, HCV genome, HCV and host immune responses, HCV genotypic distribution and global epidemiology. The valued information was subjected for review. HBV has strict tissue tropism to liver. The virus infecting hepatocytes produces large amount of hepatitis B surface antigen particles which lack the DNA. It has capability to integrate into host genome. It has been found that genotype C is most emerging genotype associated with more severe liver diseases (cirrhosis). The approximate prevalence rate of genotype C is 27.7% which represents a major threat to future generations. Approximately 8% of population is chronic carrier of HBV in developing countries. The chronic carrier rate of HBV is 2%-7% in Middle East, Eastern and Southern Europe, South America and Japan. Among HCV infected individuals, 15% usually have natural tendency to overcome acute viral infection, where as 85% of individuals were unable to control HCV infection. The internal ribosomal entry site contains highly conserved structures important for binding and appropriate positioning of viral genome inside the host cell. HCV infects only in 1%-10% of hepatocytes, but production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (from CD8+ cells) and interferon-gamma cause destruction of both infected cells and non-infected surrounding cells. Almost 11 genotypes and above 100 subtypes of HCV exists worldwide with different geographical distribution. Many efforts are still needed to minimize global burden of these infections. For the complete eradication of HBV (just like small pox and polio) via vaccination strategies, sincere efforts would be required from government and nongovernmental organizations.


    Improvements that can be expected after stem cell therapy:

    For the patients after chemotherapy: stimulation of the immune system, reduction of antiviral agents toxicity, restoration of liver functions

    For patients who are contraindicated in antiviral drugs: reduction of viral load, restoration of the liver structure and functions, protection of the vital body functions.

    For patients with cirrhosis and hepatic failure: regeneration of cell structure and liver function, normalization of biochemical indicators, improvement of metabolism, reduction of bleeding risks, ascites, portal hypertension, a significant improvement in the quality of life.

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    Diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis C since September 2010. Interferon treatment (Pegasys 180 + Copegus 800) was carried out from September 2010 to November 2011.
    In 2012, she was hospitalized with complaints about the periodic increases in body temperature to 37.5 ° C, bleeding gums, abdominal swelling
    Patient was diagnosed with cirrhosis caused by chronic hep C infection, as well as chronic acalculous cholecystitis
    Cellular therapy was recommended by the attending physician. After a standard course of injections of autologous stem cells, patient noted improved productivity and the absence of side effects of interferon therapy.
    In 2013, additional tests were performed, as well as transient elastography of the liver showed negative presence of the Hepatitis C virus.

    Biopro Stem Clinic

    Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocyte-Like Cells as Model for Viral Hepatitis Research

    Viral hepatitis, the leading cause of liver diseases worldwide, is induced upon infection with hepatotropic viruses, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E virus. Due to their obligate intracellular lifestyles, culture systems for efficient viral replication are vital. Although basic and translational research on viral hepatitis has been performed for many years, conventional hepatocellular culture systems are not optimal. These studies have greatly benefited from recent efforts on improving cell culture models for virus replication and infection studies. Here we summarize the use of human stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for hepatotropic virus infection studies, including the dissection of virus-host interactions and virus-induced pathogenesis as well as the identification and validation of novel antiviral agents.

    Hepatitis B Virus Replication in CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells From Umbilical Cord Blood

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that can infect extrahepatic tissue. Whether hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be infected by HBV and serve as a potential virus reservoir is still unknown. In this study, the susceptibility of CD34+ HSCs to HBV was investigated.

    Above all, we demonstrated that HBV can replicate in CD34+ HSCs no matter where it is, in cord blood or peripheral blood of chronic HBV carriers. CD34+ HSCs might be another possible reservoir of HBV and a source of immune cells that play an important role in the pathogenesis of persistent HBV infection. Further studies are needed to demonstrate how HBV works in HSCs and its effects on the differentiation of HSCs.